Legitimacy is the acceptance of IJVs
by social actors (Deephouse 1996), and two important sets of social actors for all IJVs
are government authorities and market-related stakeholders (e.g., customers and business partners).
(14-15) I was able to quickly and significantly worsen her migraine, from 4 to 8 on the numeric rating scale (NRS), and perceived ICP as well as facial discoloration within 7 sec of manual compression of the IJVs
The high failure rate of international joint ventures (IJVs
), coupled with the increase in the number of IJVs
, has necessitated research in this area.
Bilateral internal jugular veins (IJVs
) were examined initially through longitudinal and cross-sectional views from the proximal part of the neck base rostrally to the distal part at the submandibular level to detect spontaneous JVR.
Caption: Figure 3: 2D Cine phase contrast at C5-C6 level: (a) magnitude image that displays carotids and IJVs
; (b) phase image at the same level displaying dark flow directed to the heart and bright flow directed to the brain, with C and D indicating ROIs for flow measurements within IJVs
bilaterally; and (c, d) velocity curves, respectively, for C and D ROIs.
Open discussions were performed on both parties of the International Joint-Venture (IJV
) entity, on matters regarding project management and the strategic decisions that were made in the course of the project.
When it comes to China IJVs
have been rapidly proliferating in China in the last three decades since China adopted an open door policy to attract foreign investments in 1978.
Nonetheless, according to New Economic Policy (NEP) launched in 1969 and following New Development Policy (NDP) in 1990, 'bumiputera' (indigenous) 30%' has been mandated by the authority (Abdul Rashid et al., 2007), which means foreign contractors that tender for huge infrastructure projects, especially those funded by government, must create IJVs
with local partners that hold at least 30% of the stake (Adnan & Morledge, 2003).
This paper will, therefore, focus on the impact of trust and commitment on learning effectiveness in IJVs
From 1982 to 2004 China experienced an average annual growth rate of 24 per cent in foreign investment and 31.99 per cent in equity IJVs
. In the automotive industry IJVs
are the only available mode because the Chinese government does not allow wholly foreign owned enterprises and requires that Chinese partners hold at least 50 per cent equity in IJVs
This article presents a newly integrated and systematic framework for measuring the performance of sino-foreign IJVs
. Considered the specific conditions and characteristics of sino-foreign IJVs
, I classify the influencing factors as internal factors and external factors in general to discuss the factors influencing IJV
performance and primary stakeholders' satisfaction and secondary stakeholders' satisfaction in general to formulate the performance measurement approaches.
International Joint Ventures (IJVs
) established upon cooperation between multinational enterprises (MNEs) and local companies, rapidly spread as a new economic trend since the beginning of the 1990s (Park 2010).