However, as an employee's IMB can also affect a rater's judgment (Kipnis & Schmidt, 1988; Wayne & Ferris, 1990), individuals may use IRB, OCB, and IMB strategically to achieve a higher performance rating.
Rater error might also affect IMB. Given that IMB is intended to influence the perception of others about an individual's perception of his or her own image (Goffman, 1959), that individual may attempt to affect the rater's judgment when there is rater error during the appraisal process.
Seven items from Wayne and Ferris's (1990) scale were used to measure IMB. Results of the principal components analysis indicated there were three types of impression management: job-focused, supervisor-focused, and self-focused.
IMB = impression management behavior; OCBO = organizational citizenship behaviors targeting organization; OCBI = organizational citizenship behaviors targeting individual; IRB = in-role behavior; I-C values = value dimension of individualism-collectivism; I-C norms = norm dimension of individualism-collectivism.
Although their involvement is to watch, rather than change, the IMB board members can get actively involved if they feel the actions within the prison will have a negative effect.
"However luckily the IMB was able to intervene and prevent him being moved.
IMB, as they are now, came in to being as long ago as 1898.
Anastasia King's story is often told by scholars and activists advocating for greater regulations targeting IMBs. Unfortunately, because the Department of Justice does not distinguish between American-born and foreign-born persons--let alone American citizens and mail-order brides-in its crime statistics on domestic violence, most of the information on domestic abuse in IMB relationships is similarly anecdotal.
The apparent willingness of IMBs to match violent men with mail-order brides only compounds this already problematic situation.
(39) Equality Now's research demonstrates what appears to be a pervasive willingness on the part of IMBs to match violent men with foreign women.