INVSTInternational & National Service Voluntary Training Program
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Within the context of a long-term evaluation of the INVST CLP's impact, it became clear that despite the influence of a Freirean lexicon of "empowerment," something such as the ideals of democratic solidarity and "growth" (Dewey, 1938) were more flexible in making sense of experience, allowing for the fact that in order to achieve an authentic democratic identity some students need to learn skills associated with receptivity rather than activity and agency.
For the purposes of studying the INVST CLP, Gutmann's framework--non-domination, non-repression, and a democratic threshold--was supplemented with insights from critical multicultural education, which begins with a Freirean-critical interest in structural inequality, and thoroughly explores problems related to educating students about privilege as well as how dialogue and deliberation can be achieved in settings where students interact across social power differentials (Sleeter, 1995).
While none of these entering dummies is statistically significant, the coefficients for INVST in both regressions remain negatively related to the wealth gain, and are statistically significant at the 0.
We noted that the sign, the significance and the magnitude of INVST are preserved.