4) Variables Description INW Foreign multinational ownership is measured by a dummy that takes a value of 1 if firm i is foreign-owned and 0 otherwise SIZE Firm size is given by the firm i total number of employees at time t AGE Firm age is defined as the difference between year of observation t and the official year of incorporation of the firm.
00 Author's elaborations on AIDA database Table 5 Estimation results: Cox proportional hazard model Manufacturing industries Services (ATECO 15-37) (ATECO 40-99) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Firm-specific variables INW 1.
Although cogeneration is not prevalent in INW softwood lumber mills, several US sawmills do generate some of their own electricity (Bergman and Bowe 2010), which does offset the use of electricity from the grid.
With a previously published life-cycle inventory (LCI) on the manufacture of softwood lumber produced in the INW (Puettmann et al.
Forest residues were collected after conventional logging operations in the INW (Johnson et al.
2010b) reported that the average INW boiler feedstocks used 54 percent mill residues and 46 percent natural gas.
2010b) reported that the average INW softwood lumber mill consumed 76.
To evaluate the best use for woody biomass as a fuel for INW mills, two additional scenarios were modeled to evaluate the environmental tradeoffs of using woody biomass for heat generation, as in the mill boiler, or as a feedstock for electricity generation.