iodixanol is a nonionic dimer, which is an emerging category of CMs.
Here is an example of how IOCM
can benefit both parties in a business transaction.
Results of this study indicated that HOCM have a greater potential for cytotoxic effects on proximal tubular cells in vitro than do LOCM or IOCM
. At equal iodine concentrations (300mgI/mL), the HOCM ioxithalamate showed stronger cytotoxic effects than did other contrast media.
The nonionic ICM were (i) the LOCM, iohexol (350 mg iodine/mL, 844mOsm/kg of water and 10.4 cPs at 37[degrees]C; 300 mg iodine/mL, and 672 mOsm/kg of water and 6.3 cPs at 37[degrees]C; GE Healthcare, Shanghai, China) and (ii) an IOCM
, iodixanol (320 mg iodine/mL, 290 mOsm/kg of water and 11.8 cPs at 37[degrees]C (GE Healthcare)).
Using isolated perfused human and rat DVR , it was observed that the IOCM
iodixanol at physiologically relevant concentrations caused constriction of DVR and caused structural damage of endothelial cells from rat renal interlobular arteries.
(19) The authors found no significant difference in the overall incidence of CIN between the IOCM
and the control groups for all baseline creatinine values.
The sorption capacity of IOCM
for NOM directly depends on the amount of iron retained on the media surfaces and generally increases with the decrease of solution pH, the increase of empty bed contact time, and the concentration of [Ca.sup.2+].
Six CM solutions as marketed/formulated for clinical use were studied: four LOCM and two IOCM
; with comparable iodine concentrations, the viscosities of the IOCM
solutions are about twice those of LOCM solutions.
refers to firms' joint efforts to reduce costs, OBA involves the exchange and/or disclosure of cost-relevant data to the partner firm.
) seems less nephrotoxic than iohexol (LOCM) [82, 87], at least in patients with intra-arterial administration of the drug and renal insufficiency [88, 89].
 summarized the incidence of CI-AKI and the associations between CI-AKI incidence and risk factors in patients undergoing intravenous contrast-enhanced CT with iodinated low- or isoosmolar contrast media (LOCM and IOCM