IONPInternational Organization Nonproliferation Project
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IONPs of 100 mg/kg induced a significant decrease in hepatic GSH level and CAT activity and a significant increase in hepatic MDA.
IONPs between 8-30 nm functionalized and coated with various surface polymers and bear IONPs have been used to investigate the signal changes.
There are four types of IONPs. SHP is a group of water soluble IONPs with amphiphilic polymer coating.
For example, magnetic IONPs are promising for carrying cancer drugs that target specific tissues.
The surface charge of IONPs is also important for their stability and how they interact with tissues.
Other applications that can benefit from improving the functionality of magnetic IONPs include magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic hyperthermia and thermoablation (killing selected cancer cells with heat), and biosensing (detecting molecular interactions for disease diagnosis).
In the last two decades, a variety of synthetic methods have been developed to produce IONP. We can divide the different approaches into two groups: aqueous and nonaqueous methods.
Coprecipitation is the most used aqueous method to obtain IONP. The first protocol, developed by Massart in 1981, involved the reaction between [Fe.sup.2+]/[Fe.sup.3+] salt solutions at basic pH [54].
Coprecipitation is a straightforward methodology that has been extensively used due to the possibility of producing IONP on a large scale [55].
Thus, increasing dC of IONPs from 5 to 14 nm results in 3-log increased T2-relaxivity [15].
Uncoated IONPs are often colloidally unstable and get rapidly eliminated by the macrophages.
Apart from nanoparticles' properties, biological factors also determine IONPs pharmacokinetics and biodistribution.