(a) Time-longitude diagram of zonal moisture flux from observations (g [kg.sup.-1] m [s.sup.-1]) and (b) averaged zonal wind profiles (m [s.sup.-1]) and specific humidity profiles from observations (black line), ERA-I (red line), and MERRA (blue line) during IOPI. (c),(d) As in (a) and (b), but during IOP2.
Diurnal cycle of observed zonal wind averages (m [s.sup.-1]) during (a) IOPI (Jan 2016; on ocean), (b) IOP2 (Jun 2016; inland), (c) IOP3 (Oct 2016; inland), and (d) IOP4 (Nov 2016; on ocean).
Among the instruments for measuring tongue pressure, the Iowa Oral Performance Instrument (IOPI) is the most used in scientific research (25-29), being this instrument used in this research.
However, further studies are necessary, mainly Brazilian ones, involving the IOPI and a greater number of children with and/or without oral breathing, in order to draw the profiles of the expected pressures for each age, gender and respiratory mode.
In this second stage, to evaluate these parameters, we used the Iowa Oral Performance Instrument (IOPI), model 2.0.
The IOPI is an apparatus that aims to demonstrate the pressure endurance and tongue by numbers in unit kilopascal (kPa).
Vertical distributions of the frequency radar reflectivity over site T3 during IOPI
in the wet season.
Abbreviations: AHMAX = anterior-emphasis half-maximum tongue-palate press, AHMAXFAST = AHMAX performed at fast rate, AHMAXSLOW = AHMAX performed at slow rate, ANOVA = analysis of variance, df = degrees of freedom, DSANEC = discrete nectar-thick apple juice swallow, DSW = discrete water swallow, ESS = effortful saliva swallow, IOPI
= Iowa Oral Performance Instrument, NESS = noneffortful saliva swallow, PHMAX = posterior-emphasis half-maximum tongue-palate press, PHMAXFAST = PHMAX performed at fast rate, PHMAXSLOW = PHMAX performed at slow rate, PMAXTP = posterior-emphasis maximum isometric tongue-palate press.
Thus, the present research aims to analyze if there is a correlation between the values found in the tongue pressure measurements obtained through the Iowa Oral Performance Instrument (IOPI) with the bulb in anterior and posterior position and the electrical potential of the suprahyoid muscles researched by surface electromyography.
Exclusion criteria were: do not tolerate the IOPI bulb in the oral cavity and do not perform all requested tongue strength measurements.
Os inumeros estudos desenvolvidos com o IOPI usualmente empregam a pressao maxima da lingua como dado de referencia, inclusive para avaliar a eficacia das intervencoes terapeuticas [24-30].
A systematic review and meta-analysis of measurements of tongue and hand strength and endurance using the Iowa Oral Performance Instrument (IOPI).