IPKCAInternational Parental Kidnapping Crime Act (US)
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On appeal, Raheman argued, inter alia, that the evidence failed to show a crime under the IPKCA because the alleged conduct was not criminal under Massachusetts law.
The legislative history explains that IPKCA was enacted as a domestic response to issues left unaddressed by international law:"
Cummings argued that Congress did not have constitutional authority under the Commerce Clause to criminalize through IPKCA the retention of an American child in a foreign country.