IPKCAInternational Parental Kidnapping Crime Act (US)
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The legislative history explains that IPKCA was enacted as a domestic response to issues left unaddressed by international law:"
The Court then turns to the issue of first impression in the First Circuit: whether IPKCA authorizes the conviction of a parent for conduct that is not criminal under State law.
Furthermore, according to Cummings, the IPKCA targets the interference with the individual rights of a parent, a matter traditionally left to state regulation.