IPOA-IUUInternational Plan of Action to Prevent, Deter and Eliminate Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated Fishing
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III, [paragraph] 9.1 (2001) [hereinafter IPOA-IUU], available at ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/012/y1224e/y1224e00.pdf (noting role of states and regional fisheries in implementing IPOA); see also Judith Swan, Port State Measures: Examining the Value, Implementation and Challenges of Port State Measures for the Southern African Region, www.StopIllegalFishing.com, available at http://www.stopillegalfishing.com/doc/publication/eng/port_state_measures.pdf (indicating expanded role of port states under IPOA-IUU).
(65.) See George, supra note 13, at 87 (stating objectives of IPOA-IUU).
(66.) See Ferrell, supra note 2, at 330 (discussing voluntary FAO agreements like the IPOA-IUU being useful as "toolboxes"); FAO, Stopping Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated (IUU) Fishing (2002), ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/004/y3554E/ y3554E00.pdf (describing IPOA-IUU as "toolbox" permitting catered approach that discriminates among fisheries).
2010, at 263 (noting voluntary nature of IPOA-IUU has deleterious effect on IPOA-IUU's potency and recommending further action).
Paragraph 3.3 of the IPOA-IUU defines unregualted fishing as fishing activities:
Unreported fishing is defined in paragraph 3.2 of the IPOA-IUU as fishing activities:
(103) The IPOA-IUU provides a more comprehensive framework to combat IUU fishing than the FAO Code of Conduct.
The objective of the IPOA-IUU as set out in Part III is to prevent, deter and eliminate IUU fishing by providing all States with comprehensive, effective and transparent measures by which to act, including through appropriate RFMOs established in accordance with international law.
States must continue to encourage adoption of FAO's IPOA-IUU,
Committee on Fisheries adopted the IPOA-IUU by consensus on
6.10-6.12, 7.1.5, 8.1-8.4.8; IPOA-IUU, supra note 3, pts.
(393) Currently, the IPOA-IUU merely suggests that domestic