While, then, the members of IPWA were committed to ousting the British imperialists from India, and while they were patriots, they were also politically aligned with those who dreamed of some postnational confederation (partly in reaction against the fascists who were associated with rabid nationalism and in the Nazis' case racism).
(40) Hence he did not immediately travel to India after the IPWA was founded, as had Zaheer, but rather was preoccupied with meetings and organizations for the antifascist cause.
At this congress IPWA speakers confronted the task of defining what it might mean to be a "progressive" Indian writer in the second half of the 1930s.
The speech he delivered to the Second Congress of the IPWA, held in Calcutta in December 1938, is a curious document in that in it one can see how he tries to maneuver among the various possible orientations of the association (the earlier, First Congress had been hastily called, and the speeches made to it are considered less canonical).41 In his speech he also struggles with the problem of defining that elusive concept "India." In some sections of the speech Anand addresses the problem of how to nationalize the different regional literatures by subsuming them under a single, pan-Indian literature.
There were fierce rivalries among the various literatures, and especially between the Hindi and Bengali traditions (the IPWA had its greatest success among intellectuals of Northern India and was somewhat scantily represented in the South).
In reality the IPWA "failed to attract a substantial membership of Anglophone writers," and in time most of its London-based founding members, such as Zaheer and Anand, drifted away from it.
During these early years of the IPWA, Anand published four of his most famous novels: Untouchable (1935, the first), Coolie (1936), Two Leaves and a Bud (1937), and The Village (1939).