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IRF-1Interferon Regulatory Transcription Factor 1
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This transcription factor interacts with IRF-1, IRF-3, and IRF-7 to induce expression of proinflammatory cytokines [233, 234].
Mueller, "Activities of IRF-1," Journal of Interferon and Cytokine Research, vol.
IRF-2 is 349-amino acid-long and displays considerable sequence homology with IRF-1 [23].
IRF-3 was discovered by searching genes with homology sequences with IRF-1 and IRF-2 [50].
IRF-4, first described in 1995, is a 450-amino acid-long "hematopoietic" protein with considerable homology with IRF-1 and IRF-2 [66].
Research in this area is still in progress, but our present working model refers to IRF-1, IRF-5, and IRF8 as factors driving the proinflammatory, classically activated (M1) macrophage phenotype, while IRF-3 and IRF-4 promote anti-inflammatory, alternatively activated (M2) macrophages (Figure 2).
Aggarwal, "Structure of IRF-1 with bound DNA reveals determinants of interferon regulation," Nature, vol.
Kitagawa et al., "Targeted disruption of IRF-1 or IRF-2 results in abnormal type I IFN gene induction and aberrant lymphocyte development," Cell, vol.