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Citrate is used by the enzyme immune-responsive gene 1 (IRG1) to generate itaconate that acts as an endogenous SDH inhibitor and also as antimicrobial.
DE genes Samples Upregulated Downregulated C versus Pcdhgb2 Ubd, Ttr, M [intersection] F Cxcl9, Serpina3n, versus Irg1, Odf1, Trpv4 M [intersection] A versus M F versus Ifit1, AABR06089930.1, M [intersection] C LOC100912860 Cd80, versus M Tfec, Il1rn A versus Alas2, Plac8, C3, M [intersection] C Angptl1, Bcl2a1, S100a4, versus M Cndp1 Il15ra, Ptprcap, Lgals3, Ccl2, LOC691141, Ptx3, Itgal, Pram1, Hk3, Pate4, A2m F versus Ada, Hsf5, Rn50_1_2682.1, M [intersection] A Slc16a12 Cd22 versus M Table 3: Common significant GO terms for DE genes.
The production of mitochondrial ROS was also further explained to be mediated by immunoresponsive gene 1 (IRG1), which improved oxidative phosphorylation and thereby increased ROS production in phagosomes.
Type I interferons, typically secreted during viral infection, induce Irg1 expression in macrophages and subsequent itaconate production .
Lampropoulou et al., "Irg1 expression in myeloid cells prevents immunopathology during M.
It is worth noting that a number of upregulated genes in PMNs phagocytizing iRBCs including BATF2, CISH, FCGR1A, SOCS3, CXCL10, HAS1, IRG1, IL1A, ELN, and CTSL are known to be involved in various inflammatory diseases .
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