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IRGMInfrared Guidance Module
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Autophagy and inflammatory bowel disease: Association between variants of the autophagy-related IRGM gene and susceptibility to Crohn's disease.
Widely accepted IBD-relevant autophagy genes, including NOD2, ATG16L1, and IRGM, were identified through genome-wide association studies (GWASs) and subsequent meta-analyses of GWAS and immune chip data [26].
Target Control IL-1[beta] Regulation of (normalized (normalized expression (fold gene expression) expression) of control) CTSS 0.02147 0.04437 2.06698 DRAM1 0.74956 1.13656 1.51630 BCL2 0.00884 0.00563 -1.56975 ATG3 0.52789 0.33625 -1.56992 FAS 0.22418 0.13826 -1.62145 TMEM74 0.01275 0.00719 -1.77425 DAPK1 0.01713 0.00908 -1.88681 ESR1 0.01500 0.00755 -1.98755 CXCR4 0.00373 0.00168 -2.22252 IRGM 0.01824 0.00719 -2.53548 Table 2: Regulation of autophagy-associated genes by F.
Prescott et al., "Sequence variants in the autophagy gene IRGM and multiple other replicating loci contribute to Crohn's disease susceptibility," Nature Genetics, vol.
Association of ATG16L1 and IRGM genes polymorphisms with inflammatory bowel disease: a meta-analysis approach.
His team found that the IRGM protein plays a role in a series of cellular events that trigger autophagy.
The truncated IRGM gene is one of only two genes of its type remaining in humans.
A recent study found several polymorphisms in autophagy genes implicated in CD disease: ATG16L1 (Autophagy-Related 16Like 1), IRGM (Immune-Related GTPase M), ULK1 (Unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase 1), PTPN2 (protein tyrosine phosphatase nonreceptor type 2), and LRRK2 (leucine-rich repeat kinase 2) [37].
What is more, ATG16L1 and IRGM, two pivotal autophage-related genes in host innate immune response in CD, gradually fade away and now the brilliance is covered by ATG4, a novel identified gene in promoting the autophagy process in CD patients.
demonstrated that different RNA viruses, including HCV, can modulate autophagy by interacting with the human immunity-associated GTPase family M (IRGM) [149].
Gene polymorphisms in NOD2, ATG16L1, and IRGM have been commonly accepted as host factors in the predisposition of CD in western countries.