Out of 81 E.coli isolates, the most prevalent gene detected was ompA (90.12%), followed by ETT2 (69.14%), irp2
(54.32%), EAST1 (46.91%), CS31A (41.98%), estB (19.75%), eaeA (14.81%), estA (12.35%) and K88 (1.23%), while others were negative.
In this study, M1 macrophages derived by recombinant IFN-[gamma] alone express high mRNA levels of hepcidin (Hamp2), FtH, and FtL and low levels of FPN, IRP1, and IRP2
. M1 macrophages, which directly deal with microbes at sites of infection, upregulate hepcidin and downregulate FPN, thus limiting release of iron which could favour invading pathogens.
The tsh gene was also positively associated with the B2 group (P [less than or equal to] 0.05), as well as vat, irp2
, ibeA, and neuS genes (Table 1).
The VFs most frequently found were fimH (93%), irp2
(76%), chuA, and kpsMT II (65% each), while ibe10 and kpsMTIII were rarely detected (Table 1).
Important molecules concerning cellular iron uptake are iron-responsive proteins (IRP1 and IRP2
) and iron-responsive elements (IRE).
"When we do our load forecasting in the integrated resources plan, in this case the IRP2
(mooted in 2005), by 2025 we would require an additional 40,000MW onto the system to move our installed capacity from 42,000MW to 82,000MW." What that means is that an assumed medium economic growth of 4.6% by 2025 calls for a doubling of the current installed generation capacity to at least 80,000MW.
Transgenic knockout mouse models of IRP1, IRP2
indicate that the double knockout is embryonically lethal (52).
Although Leal and Almeida (7) did include a chromosomal target, irp2
, in their standard PCR assay, a real-time differential assay based on a stable genomic target would be extremely desirable.
The challenging task of maintaining intracellular iron levels sufficient for essential cellular functions, including ROS-dependent cell signaling, but as low as possible to avoid ROS-mediated injury, is controlled at multiple steps but primarily accomplished by iron regulatory proteins (IRP1 and IRP2
), which strictly control intracellular iron metabolism by posttranscriptionally regulating the coordinated expression of proteins involved in iron utilization (e.g., erythroid 5 aminolevulinic acid synthase, mitochondrial aconitase, and Drosophila succinate dehydrogenase), uptake (transferrin receptor (TfR1) and divalent metal transporter (DMT1)), storage (H and L ferritin subunits), and export (ferroportin) [15, 16] (Figure 2).