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IRS1Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent
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Regulation of insulin sensitivity by serine/threonine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate proteins IRS1 and IRS2.
The deletion of both IRS1 and insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2) (H-DKO mice: heart-specific IRS1 and IRS2 double gene knock-out) in the brain and liver causes hyperglycemia, but such deficiencies in the pancreas and heart cause organ failure [98].
Of note, some of such associations are reported for the first time, except for rs1799883 (FABP2) [34], rs660339 (UCP2) and rs659366 (UCP2) [35], rs1052700 (PLIN1) [36], rs17782313 (MC4R) [37], rs7799039 (LEP) [38], rs2943641 (IRS1) [39], rs9939609 (FTO) [40], and rs324420 (FAAH) [41].
Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase then binds to IRS1 via its regulatory subunit and is activated, in turn activating Akt (protein kinase B).
[47] found that cinnamon extract supplementation resulted in reduced expression of interleukin-1[beta] (IL-1[beta]), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-[alpha] (TNF-[alpha]) mRNA while increasing expression of IR, IRS1, and IRS2 in hamster enterocytes.
Zhang, "Rosiglitazone, an agonist of peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor [gamma] (PPAR[gamma]), decreases inhibitory serine phosphorylation of IRS1 in vitro and in vivo," Biochemical Journal, vol.
TNF-[alpha] has been shown to inhibit insulin signaling via insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) and may increase adipose lipolysis [46].
En la region del centro se han identificado a APOE y CPN10, mientras que en la region Sur fueron CPN10, INS, INR e IRS1 (codifican para la insulina, el receptor de insulina y el sustrato del receptor de insulina) (6-13).
To investigate whether marein stimulates glucose uptake through the regulation of 1RS1, we measured glucose uptake and IRS phosphorylation in the presence of IRS1 inhibitors and insulin or marein.
In a metabolic level, TNF-[alpha] also induces lipolysis and thereby activates mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK), decreasing the activity of the insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) by phosphorylation of serine residues, finally inhibiting GLUT-4 expression [80].
Mientras que en el sur estan asociados CPN10, INS, IRS1 e INRS; se conocen a la fecha mas de 50 genes asociados (2-15).Dado el componente poligenico de la DM2 que muestra una gran heterogeneidad molecular, se requiere explorar nuevos genes relacionados con otras vias metabolicas.