IRWLSIteratively Re-Weighted Least Squares
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where [a.sub.i] and T are the constants independent of W, b, and then, we can minimize [L'.sub.p](W, b) with the IRWLS method to calculate the optimal solution [W.sub.s], [b.sub.s].
An IRWLS procedure, which linearly searches the next step solution along the descending direction based on the previous solution [33], is constructed to solve the minimization problem of (4).
The general steps of the IRWLS procedure can be described as follows.
For more than a decade, California municipalities have been using in-roadway warning lights (IRWLs, also known as in-pavement flashers and up-lights) as an option to improve pedestrian safety at uncontrolled crosswalks.
Nevertheless, many cities remain enthusiastic about IRWLs as one tool in the traffic engineer's toolbox for addressing pedestrian safety concerns at uncontrolled crosswalks.