developing crop-specific N application rates in the context of ISFM to improve food production and quality, while minimising environmental pollution
Importantly, in addition to improving accessibility to N inputs, farmers will have to be empowered with relevant knowledge and the know-how and financing opportunities for the adoption of N inputs in the context of ISFM to be able to produce enough nutritious food, and diversify production systems to meet dietary needs.
The outcome variable was the degree of adoption (farmers' level of use) of ISFM technologies.
A multistage purposive sampling procedure was adopted to select farmers from nine sublocations that were practicing ISFM.
Information captured using this approach included the type of soil fertility enhancing technologies, size of farm allocated to preferred crops, socioeconomic characteristics such as education level of farmers, marital status, family size and gender diversity and factors affecting their adoption of ISFM technologies.
Probit regression model was used to predict the socio-economic factors influencing the adoption of ISFM technologies among smallholder farmers in the study area.
A probe into the determinants of the adoption of selected ISFM components revealed that education of household head (Educ) was positively associated with both adoption of inorganic fertilizers (p < 0.
This makes integrated application of the ISFM practices rather difficult as inorganic fertilizer is a key ingredient for implementation of ISFM strategy.
Moreover, younger farmers may incur lower switching costs in implementing new practices since they only have limited experience and the learning and adjustment costs involved in adopting ISFM practices may be lower for them.
Off-farm income from informal and formal non-agricultural employment is important in fostering adoption of the ISFM practices.
However, if ISFM practices are scale-dependent economically, even if they are technologically scale-neutral, research and extension practices must take this into account, especially in places such as western Kenya where farm sizes rarely exceed one hectare and now average less than 0.