The primary hypotheses are based on the mental training skills approach (Burton and Raedeke, 2008) that predicts greater development and use of mental skills should prompt the treatment group to experience and foster more ISOEs while experiencing a decline of ESOEs.
Through enhanced ISOEs (Wiersma, 2001), the WMSE hypothesizes targeted intervention outcomes (i.
The use of goal setting has also been shown to improve self-confidence and performance and decrease competitive anxiety (Burton, 1989), prompting the model to hypothesize a positive relationship between goal setting and ISOEs.
Conversely, unhealthy stress levels can lower athletes' self-confidence, perceived competence, social enjoyment and overall desire to perform (Scanlan, 1992), prompting this WMSE to hypothesize a positive relationship between relaxation and ISOEs.
The WMSE hypothesized that ISOEs should reduce unwanted trait anxiety levels that negatively affect intrinsic sport enjoyment as well as performance (Scanlan et al.
Within this WMSE, treatment athletes' self-confidence levels should benefit from development of ISOEs.
Athletic performance: Although there is no previous research examining the impact sport enjoyment on athletic performance, the WMSE hypothesized a positive relationship, with treatment athletes' greater use of process variables developing greater ISOEs that promote improved performance.
Structured MST intervention: The applied sport psychology intervention was focused on promoting the construct of ISOEs (Scanlan, 1992; Scanlan et al.
Acquisition and implementation phases: In the Acquisition Phase, the consultant began to tailor athletes' programs to promote ISOEs and ultimately enhance athlete outcomes.
This treatment protocol ensured that all treatment athletes receiving the same core intervention, but flexibility provided the ability to tailor it to the needs and ISOEs of the athlete.
Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) results, coupled with a follow-up analysis of variance (ANOVA) comparison of means, were used to examine MST intervention outcomes based on the treatment group development of ISOEs.
9% across the season, with reported ISOEs decreasing 6.