neck and chest CTs) and the frequency of ITNs
on these studies (up to 25% on chest CT (48) and 16-18% on CT or MRI of the neck (49,50)).
Large community-based distribution and/or IRS campaigns have led to significant ITN
and IRS coverage in several African countries, resulting in a substantial drop in the prevalence of malaria in that region .
In this outbreak, the vector control measures using IRS and ITNs
were household-level implemented in the absence of vector surveillance (Figure 3).
While 97% agreed on the use of ITNs
, 92% indicated IRS as means of preventing malaria.
In the model of [5,17] the authors introduced explicit equation for the proportion of ITNs
use as a function of mosquito biting rates.
The main intervention strategies are vector control (which reduces transmission of parasites from humans to mosquitoes and then back to humans), which is achieved largely through the use of insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs
) and house spraying by indoor residual spraying (IRS); chemotherapy; and case management including rapid diagnosis and treatment of infections) [2,92].
expanded distributions, use and coverage of vector control strategies such as of insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs
) and indoor residual spraying (IRS), increased use of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for prompt diagnosis and increased access to malaria case management using artemisinin-combination therapy (ACT).
In an effort to malaria transmission reduction, some countries have implemented indoor residual spraying (IRS) and universal distribution of insecticide-treated nets ITNs
in combination in years (12,13).
A study by the Malaria Atlas Project at Britain's Oxford University found that "by far the most important intervention" in reducing malaria cases and deaths has been the use of insecticide-treated bednets (ITNs
), around a billion of which have been distributed in Africa since 2000.
Since 2000, more than a billion insecticide-treated bednets (ITNs
) have been distributed in Africa.
* Assistance to employees in obtaining SINs or ITNs
(40-47) These included the following: (i) Distribution of insecticide treated bed-nets (ITNs
) to be more effective, proper orientation on the usage; (ii) Laboratory diagnosis of malaria to be considered along clinical assessment before treatment of malaria; (iii) artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) recommended but quality control must be ensured; (iv) More funding for research on indigenous malaria drugs; and (v) Vector control