The IUPGR could not be adopted as a binding instrument due to the reservations of eight industrialized countries.
(12) This conflicted with the common heritage principle embodied in the IUPGR. (13) The latter placed no restrictions on access to these resources, while the former allows governments to impose controls and conditions.
The International Treaty was adopted after eight years of negotiations and superseded the IUPGR. (15) It entered into force in June 2004.