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(34b) Ako iUta Pelimo napraviti navijacima, najprije ih trebamo dobro upoznati.
We determined capsular serotypes K1 or K2 and 8 virulence genes (a plasmid-borne regulator of the extracellular polysaccharide synthesis gene [prmpA], 4 iron-capture systems genes [aerobactin iutA, yersiniabactin ybtS kfu, and entrobactin entD], a capsular fucose production gene [wcaG] , an allantoin metabolism gene [allS], and a type-3 fimbrial adhesion gene [mrkD]) by using a multiplex PCR, as described (30).
The authors are grateful to all the athletes and trainers of the Italian Ultramarathon and Trail Association (IUTA) team for their kind collaboration and to all subjects that participated in the experimentation.
Five isolates harbored genes encoding siderophores (fyuA, iutA).
(6) proposed that the presence of at least two of the following virulence factors: papA and/or papC, sfa / foc, afa / dra, kpsMT II, and iuc / iutA, would be sufficient for molecular characterization of an E.
The iutA gene, which codes for the ferric aerobactin receptor, was present, but not iucABCD, which is involved in aerobactin biosynthesis.
Brandt (North Rhine-Westphalia State Environmental Agency, Essen, Germany) for providing data on road traffic and emission inventories; T, Kuhlbusch (IUTA Duisburg Institut fur Energie- und Umwelttechnik e.V., Duisburg, Germany) for conducting the measurement program for particles and [NO.sub.2]; K.
Isolates were operationally defined as ExPEC if [greater than or equal to] 2 of the following were present: papA and/or papC (P fimbriae structural subunit and assembly), sfa/ focDE (S and F1C fimbriae), afa/draBC (Dr binding adhesins), iutA (aerobactin system), and kpsM II (group 2 capsule) (8).
All isolates were screened for 5 ExPEC-defining virulence markers, papA/papC, sfa/focDE, afa/draBC, kpsM II, and iutA. Based on previous statistical analyses of similar data, from collections within which each isolate's ExPEC status could be inferred based on ecologic source or experimental virulence, isolates were classified as ExPEC if positive for [greater than or equal to] 2 of these 5 defining virulence markers (4).
Isolates were defined as ExPEC if positive for [greater than or equal to] 2 of papA and/or papC, sfa/foc, afa/dra, iutA, and kpsM (10).
The four strains were related to the phylogenetic group B2 and produced the iutA (ferric aerobactin receptor), YuA (Yersinia siderophore receptor), and film (type 1 fimbriae) virulence lactors (8).
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