IVGTIn Vitro Genetic Toxicity
IVGTIntravenous Glucose Tolerance Test
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Results from perceived and actual exertion during the exercise indicated that while there were no differences between exercise conditions on perceptions of exertion, actual exertion was higher for the exercise-control participants than IVGT participants at each measurement period during exercise periods.
First, IVGT participants were pedaling in response to activity occurring in the video game.
Second, the use of more arm muscles to steer the ergometer during the interactive condition could have accounted for the greater RPE trend in IVGT participants.
This was done to standardize environmental conditions because the IVGT condition was set up to have two interactive exercise participants playing a video game concurrently in a split-screen format.
Second, the video game selected was the same for the IVGT and exercise-control conditions to control for differential changes in mood and concentration due to preferences for different video games.
Thus, IVGT exercise may have potential to indirectly enhance academic learning by enabling greater regular physical activity which is perceived as motivational and enjoyable to young adults.
Thus, IVGT may hold meaningful potential to physical educators both directly, in presenting a motivational "entry point" to activity (Hayes & Silberman, 2007) and indirectly enhancing academic learning by enabling greater physical activity, especially among students who are not as motivated by traditional forms of physical activity.
In relating findings of the present study, since the effects of IVGT and exercise have been relatively unexamined, we wanted to first determine whether any positive psychological effects could be derived at all.
This study shows that stevioside induced a reduction in the blood glucose response to an IVGT in anaesthetized, diabetic GK rats, an increase in the insulin secretion as well as a suppression of the glucagon level.
As expected higher glucose levels were induced by the IVGT in the GK rat compared to the Wistar rat.
In the present study, insulin levels are also lower in the GK rat compared to the Wistar rat and the GK rat displayed mild hyperglycaemia and higher glucagon levels after the IVGT. Other studies have found defects late in the signal transduction in islets of GK rats, possibly occurring at the site of activation of cytosolic nucleoside diphosphokinase, a G-protein-dependent step in the exocytosis (Metz et al., 1999).
The reason for the slow, steady increase in insulin levels to the IVGT in the GK rat in contrast to the prompt, short-lived increase in the Wistar rat is poorly understood.