Further levels of intelligent knowledge processing in IWBE are achieved using educational services, such as those shown in Table 1, and making them autonomous and capable of communicating with pedagogical agents.
Using service-oriented architecture from Figure 5 in IWBE systems development can greatly enhance the traditional process of developing learning applications, since the client-side system can be built based on educational web services even if these services are not yet available or they are not known by the developers.
Although there are several frequently used, general-purpose ontology development languages (such as KIF, SHOE, XOL, Topic Maps, DAML, OIL, DAML+OIL), IWBE systems developers recently turn more and more to OWL, the latest web Ontology language proposed by WWW Consortium (http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/WD-owl-guide-20030331/).
It is up to the developers of IWBE authoring tools to provide support for creating web pages with educational content that points to appropriate ontologies and with educational services that ensure easy and automatic access of the content by means of pedagogical agents.
First-wave IWBE systems like ELM-ART (Brusilovsky et al., 1996) and PAT Online (Ritter, 1997), to name but a few, used web technology only as means of delivering instruction.
Murray (1998) classified the IWBE tools into two broad categories: pedagogy-oriented tools focusing on sequencing and teaching the content and performance-oriented tools focusing on providing rich learning environments that provide feedback on learner's actions.
Recent developments in the ontology area have prompted its influences in the development of IWBE tools.