In its earlier version, the IZOF
model was proposed by Hanin (1980, 1986) to account for the wide variability in state anxiety scores often found in field studies across contestants of different sports.
work (Hanin, 1980, 1986) focused on pre-competitive state anxiety framework using Spielberger's (1983) State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI).
While these discrepancies represent some divergent findings, the differences indicate that antecedents of state anxiety differ on an individual basis and seem highly unlikely to be generalized for all performers, congruent with Hanin's (2000) assertion regarding the IZOF
. Therefore, individual athlete characteristics are likely to be important factors for identifying state anxiety levels.
Consistency of performance-related emotions in elite athletes: Generalizability theory applied to the IZOF
Individual zones of optimal functioning (IZOF
) model: Emotion-performance relationships in sport.
Performance affect in soccer players: An application of the IZOF
The individual zones of optimal functioning (IZOF
) model (Hanin, 2004) are widely applied to the study of anxiety related to athletic performance.
Decisions regarding factor retention were based on Hanin's (1997) IZOF
theory, eigenvalues above the angled descent on the scree plot, and factors that had eigenvalues > 1.0.
(1995) Performance affect in soccer players: An application of the IZOF
Theoretical approaches such as Hardy's Catastrophe Model (1990, 1996), Hanin's Individualized Zones of Optimal Functioning Model (IZOF
, 1978, 1997), and Kerr's Reversal theory (1990, 1997) all explicitly incorporate the concept of individual differences.
Furthermore, the well-established individual zones of optimal functioning (IZOF
) framework has been shaped through idiosyncratic analysis and single-case designs (Hanin, 2007).
Further research is needed to address important issues such as the use of debilitating affect in scaling procedures, the test of the IZOF
model within other theoretical frameworks (e.g., the catastrophe model), the application of intra-individual analysis on a variety of psychological, physiological, behavioral, and performance measures, and the heart rate deceleration pattern during competition in precision sports.