The In-Vessel Retention (IVR) of molten corium by external cooling of the vessel lower head was introduced about 25 years ago .
Theofanous, "In-vessel retention of corium at the Loviisa plant," Nuclear Engineering and Design, vol.
Khatib-Rhabar, NUREG/CR-6849, Analysis of In-Vessel Retention and Ex-Vessel Fuel Coolant Interaction for AP1000, 2004.
Kim, "Late-phase melt conditions affecting the potential for in-vessel retention in high power reactors," Nuclear Engineering and Design, vol.
Thus, advanced third-generation PWRs are equipped with a passive reactor cavity flooding system to provide cooling of the external reactor vessel in case reflooding fails, a method known as in-vessel retention via external reactor vessel cooling (IVR-ERVC).
In the simulation of long-term in-vessel retention, a stable molten pool gradually forms and remains in a state of heat balance (a quasi-steady-state, in fact).
Kymalainen, "Experience from the first two integrated approaches to in-vessel retention through external cooling," NEA-CSNI-R-94-11, 1994.
Tian, "Analysis of safety margin of in-vessel retention for AP1000," Nuclear Engineering and Design, vol.