We attributed the superior temperature dependence of the avalanche breakdown voltage to the optimized design of the InAlAs multiplication layer thickness and InAlAs charge control layer doping.
In this regime, both i-InGaAs absorption and InAlAs multiplication layers are depleted, but the avalanche breakdown in the multiplication layer is not activated.
Nakaji et al., "Degradation mode analysis on highly reliable guardring-free planar InAlAs avalanche photodiodes," Journal of Lightwave Technology, vol.
Ng et al., "Temperature dependence of avalanche breakdown in InP and InAlAs," IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, vol.
In the design, the InGaAs absorption layer is on top of the InAlAs charge control and multiplication layers.