"Matching Catches to Quotas in a Multi-Species Trawl Fishery: Targeting and Avoidance Behavior Under Individual Transferable Quotas
." Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences.
* "How Do Individual Transferable Quotas
Affect Marine Ecosystems?" by Taylor Branch.
In 1984, a comprehensive system of individual transferable quotas
(ITQ) was introduced.
They commonly incorporate individual transferable quotas
because their advantages include fixed catches, removal of harvesting capacity and elimination of the need to "race for fish" (Chu 2009).
management systems, such as individual transferable quotas
France and Ireland, among other member states, have already announced their rejection of certain key components of the proposal on individual transferable quotas
. Denmark, which is applying this system on a trial basis, together with the obligation of complete documentation via electronic surveillance (cameras and electronic sensors on-board for real-time data registration and management), will defend it with a presentation of the results of its pilot project in place since 2008.
A sampling of specific topics includes: excess fishing capacity, property and use rights in fisheries, international fisheries law and the transferability of quotas, the economics of allocation in tuna regional fisheries management organizations, allocating fish across jurisdictions, individual transferable quotas
for bycatches, prospects for use rights in tuna regional fisheries management organizations, and flags of convenience and property rights on the high seas.
Called individual fishing quotas (IFQs) or individual transferable quotas
(ITQs), "catch shares" are similar to the tradable privileges in the cap-and-trade regulation of carbon emissions.
"Private Property Rights in World Fisheries: Individual Transferable Quotas
." The Journal of Private Enterprise.
In 1986 New Zealand was the first country to introduce Individual Transferable Quotas
(ITQs) to address depleting fish stocks and secure a sound economic and environmental base for its fisheries.
(1) Hannesson favours individual transferable quotas
[ITQs]: fish quotas assigned by the state to economic entities, which may be transferred for specified periods or permanently by lease, sale, or other forms of property transaction such as inheritance.
Successive Fisheries and Oceans Canada (DFO) ministers allocated "total allowable catches" and "individual transferable quotas
" with great certainty and precision, all the while presiding over a 97 percent reduction in what was once the largest fish stock in the Atlantic Ocean.