The mPFC is additionally divided into the infralimbic cortex
, prelimbic cortex, and dorsal anterior cingulate. The mPFC is mainly innervated by dopaminergic nerve fiber projections from the VTA and forms the midbrain cortex dopaminergic system, which controls recognition and thinking ability. Cognitive deficiency can occur at different stages during the course of PD, and its characteristics are similar to mPFC damage. Previous imaging studies demonstrated a significant reduction in the volume of the frontal lobe of patients with PD. Pathological changes in the mPFC in PD could be attributed to either the reduction of mPFC DA fiber projections, due to VTA DA damage, or to other factors leading to neurotoxicity in these brain area, which has not yet been reported.
Sheets, "Specific targeting of the basolateral amygdala to projectionally defined pyramidal neurons in prelimbic and infralimbic cortex, "eNeuro, vol.
Maren, "Strain difference in the effect of infralimbic cortex lesions on fear extinction in rats, "Behavioral Neuroscience, vol.
The regions of interest and the distance in mm of the regions counted from bregma was: +3.20 mm for the infralimbic cortex (IL), prelimbic cortex (PL), the cingulate cortex (CG); -1.40 for the anterodorsal thalamus (ADT), the anteroventral thalamus (AVT) and the mediodorsal thalamus (MDT); + 1.20 mm for the parietal cortex (Par); -1.20 mm for the CA1, CA3 and the dentate gyrus (DG) subfields of the dorsal hippocampus; -4.80 for ventral hippocampus; +4.52 mm for the supramammillary nucleus (SuM), the medial mammillary nucleus (MM), the medial lateral mammillary nucleus (ML) and the lateral mammillary nucleus (LM).
activity were found between males and the rest of experimental groups (p < .05; Tukey post-hoc tests) in the infralimbic cortex. Significant differences were found between diestrus and male groups in the prelimbic cortex (p = .018).
Significant effects of group were found in the infralimbic cortex, F(2, 40) = 55.022, p < .001, with significant C.O.
Zelikowsky said she found it interesting that sub-regions in the prefrontal cortex compensated in different ways, with one sub-region - the infralimbic cortex
- silencing its activity and another sub-region - the prelimbic cortex - increasing its activity.
Brain structures were anatomically defined according to a mouse brain atlas (Paxinos and Franklin ), and the regions of interest selected for measurement of c-Fos-positive nuclei were (numbers indicate the distance in millimeters of the sections from bregma) infralimbic cortex
(IL, +1.94 mm); secondary motor cortex (M2, +0.98 mm); anterior cingulate cortex, area 1 and area 2 (aCC, +0.98 mm); dentate gyrus (DG, -1.94 mm); CA1 field of dorsal hippocampus (dCA1, -1.94 mm); CA3 field of dorsal hippocampus (dCA3, -1.94 mm); posterior parietal association cortex (pPtA, -1.94 mm); primary auditory cortex (Au1, -3.16 mm); primary visual cortex (V1, -4.16 mm); medial entorhinal cortex (MEnt, -4.16 mm).
Thus, the regions of the brain that were used were the Nucleus Accumbens core and shell, the Striatum, the Dorsomedial Prefrontal Cortex, and the Infralimbic Cortex
. Since genes present in the mesolimbic/mesocortical dopaminergic pathways arc strong candidate genes for possible contributions to differences in substance abuse vulnerability, differences in the expression of the dopamine receptor D2 gene transcript, the gamma-amino butyric acid b1 and b2 ligand-gated ion channels, AGS1, and HRPT were sought.
Studies in rats indicate that the infralimbic cortex
is the specific part of the brain concerned with extinction.
Coronal sections (30 [micro]m) containing prelimbic and infralimbic cortex
(PLc and ILc, respectively), nucleus accumbens core (NACc), nucleus accumbens shell (NACs), anterodorsal thalamus (ADT), anteroventral thalamus (AVT), anteromedial thalamus (AMT), nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM), CA1, CA3, dentate gyrus (DG), medial mammillary nucleus (MM), lateral mammillary nucleus (LM) and ventral tegmental area (VTA) were studied.