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References in periodicals archive ?
(b)The estimated daily dose assumes an inhalation rate of 18 [m.sup.3]/day and a dose of 12 mg/cigarette.
The average daily dose of inhaled [PM.sub.2.5] is estimated by multiplying the relevant average ambient [PM.sub.2.5] concentrations by average daily inhalation rates (cubic meters per day).
The distributions of DDT concentrations in exposure media were then multiplied by exposure factors such as inhalation rates and food consumption rates, which yielded distributions of DDT uptake via each individual pathway.
The full range of DDT uptake is wider than the ranges in Figure 2 because also exposure factors (food consumption rates, inhalation rates, times spent indoors) are variable and contribute to the variability of DDT uptake.
where [C.sub.air] = concentration of pesticide in community air (mg/[m.sup.3]); IR = inhalation rate (liters/kilogram body weight-day); CF = conversion factor (0.001 [m.sup.3]/L air); EF = exposure frequency (all chronic; months/12 months); ED = exposure duration (cancer risk; years/70 years).
We obtained factors used to estimate inhalation rate, transfer of dust and soil from surface to skin, and absorption of chlorpyrifos from the exposure literature (Table 1).
The study goes on to say that overweight or obese children's daily inhalation rates are 10 to 24 percent higher than those of normal-weight children.
For overweight or obese children, daily inhalation rates are 10-24 per cent higher than for normal weight children.
These factors include water ingestion; soil ingestion and nondietary factors; inhalation rates; dermal factors including skin surface area and soil adherence [actors; consumption of retail and homegrown foods; breast milk intake; body weight; activity pattern data; and consumer product use.
Among these parameters are age- and population-specific inhalation rates, food and water consumption rates, residential exposure durations, and others.
Exposures in children are often of a greater magnitude than those in adults because children have higher inhalation rates and greater exposed dermal surface area per unit of body weight.