(redirected from Initiative and referendum)
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I&RInformation & Referral
I&RIdentification and Registration (health)
I&RInitiative and Referendum (legislative process; various nations)
I&RInstallation and Repair
I&RInvestigation and Research
I&RInnovation and Research
I&RInspect & Repair (technician)
I&RIntelligence & Reconnaissance
I&RInsights and Reflection
I&RInspection & Repack (parachute rigging)
References in periodicals archive ?
At the turn of the 20th century, Oregonians enshrined in our state constitution the powers of initiative and referendum.
Section 10 of the draft legislation provides that the act can "only be repealed, modified or amended by a law that has been approved by the people under the system of initiative and referendum enshrined in the 1987 Constitution.
3) Having existed in some form in the United States since the 1600s, (4) the ballot initiative and referendum have served as two of the few remaining strongholds of direct democracy in the United States.
11) Known as the Guarantee Clause, the provision seems to invalidate any product of direct democracy even though many state constitutions reserve the powers of initiative and referendum to the people.
By the time Delos Wilcox published Government by All the People in 1912, state-wide direct democracy had been operating for barely over a decade, with the statutory initiative and referendum first adopted in South Dakota in 1898 (7) and the constitutional initiative introduced by Oregon in 1902.
A prime example of the power of the referendum has recently occurred in South Dakota, which was coincidentally the first state to adopt the initiative and referendum in 1898.
As Allswang suggests, "to study the initiative and referendum is to study a microcosm of the major sociocultural, economic, political, and other issues that the people and politicians have cared about, in the state and beyond.
Since the 1980s, the wider use of initiative and referendum has provoked anxiety among American progressives.
But property rights organizations are strongest in the West, where virtually all of the states have an initiative and referendum process.
The initiative and referendum process has been an empowering and, often, mind-numbing exercise for Oregon's electorate.
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