(C) High power magnification image of dysplastic retinal layers with rosettes (f) in the inner nuclear layer
. Hematoxylin and eosin stain, bar = 250 [micro]m.
Our first patient exhibited large foveal cysts, which is less common in XLRS and almost always accompanied by schisis cavities in the inner nuclear layers
. Large foveal cysts are thought to form when the septa between previously existing cavities rupture, and a possible association with lower visual acuity as been reported.
RNFL: retina nerve fiber layer; GCL: ganglion cell layer; IPL: inner plexiform layer; INL: inner nuclear layer
; OPL: outer plexiform layer; ONL: outer nuclear layer; RPE: retinal pigment epithelium; ORL: outer retina layer.
Compared with healthy control animals, the inner nuclear layer
suffered a 37% loss of neurons and the ganglion layer a 49% loss.
Mechanisms that lead to both diseases may be related to changes in retinal ganglion cell layer and the inner nuclear layer
that play a major role in the transmission of visual information to the brain.
This structure is different from the vertebrate retina, which contains 10 layers: (1) retinal pigment epithelium, (2) cone and rod layer, (3) outer limiting membrane, (4) outer nuclear layer, (5) outer plexiform layer, (6) inner nuclear layer
, (7) inner plexiform layer, (8) ganglion cell layer, (9) nerve fiber layer, and (10) inner limiting membrane (Blaxter & Janes 1967).
The investigators were interested in detecting any differences in specific layers of the inner retina (the nerve-fiber layer, the ganglion-cell layer, and the inner-plexiform layer) and the outer retina (starting from the inner nuclear layer
up to and including the retinal pigment epithelium), and upon OCT examination, they found a correlation between Parkinson's disease and thickness of the superior and inferior inner and outer retinal layers, said Dr.
Automated segmentation of retinal layers was performed by the built-in software, which automatically calculated the average retinal thickness in each of the individual retinal layers: retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), GCL, inner plexiform layer (IPL), inner nuclear layer
(INL), outer plexiform layer (OPL), outer nuclear layer (ONL), photoreceptor layer (PRL), and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE).
a) The outer plexiform layer and the inner nuclear layer
TUNEL-positive cells in the inner nuclear layer
(INL) and the outer nuclear layer (ONL) were extremely smaller than that in the GCL because all of the RGCs were axotomized to isolate the retina during the procedure and because inner retinas in a collagen gel could be maintained for a long period of culture because of the stable condition.
The somas of all the retinal interneurons are in the inner nuclear layer
and it is the thickest with two zones, one very dense and the other more lax.
At week 12 (Figure 1(f)), the intercellular space increased and the number of the cells decreased in retinal ganglion cells layer, and the inner nuclear layer