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References in periodicals archive ?
Breathing route and ventilator responses to inspiratory resistive loading in humans.
Inspiratory resistive loading is frequently used in dyspnea research to increase the effort and work of breathing (12-18).
A secondary objective was to assess the correlation between Borg dyspnea scores during the 6MWT and during inspiratory resistive loading.
We performed inspiratory resistive loading and evaluated the perceived dyspnea scores, maximal respiratory pressures, pulmonary function tests, nutritional evaluation, and 6MWT during the same day in each patient and normal subject.
Nineteen CF patients discontinued the dyspnea perception inspiratory resistive loading test for the following reasons: dyspnea (n=12), respiratory fatigue (n=8), dry throat (n=3), cough (n=3), psychological symptoms (n=2), drooling (n=2), headache (n=1), and pain in the accessory respiratory muscles (n = 1).
In addition, animal work suggests that inspiratory resistive loading (similar obstructive hypopnea) can cause alveolar injury.
Inspiratory resistive loading improves cycling capacity: a placebo controlled trial.
In animal studies, muscle damage of the diaphragm has been observed following both short bouts of high inspiratory resistive loading (11), (12) and prolonged periods of low inspiratory loads.
Cardiorespiratory failure in rat induced by severe inspiratory resistive loading. J Appl Physiol.
The combined [A.sub.A] of abnormal muscle tissue and connective tissue was ~47% in the ARD and ARD/CRD groups which exceeded values determined from the diaphragm in patients going for thoracotomy (34%), (9) rats tracheal banded between 1 and 4 days (10-20%), (5) emphysematous hamsters (11%), (21) and rabbits 3 days after inspiratory resistive loading (17%).
(14) Further, cytokine expression in the diaphragm occurs after inspiratory resistive loading. (33) Oxidative stress can arise from an exertional overload associated with hypoxemia further accentuated by low antioxidant capacity, which has been shown in some patients with COPD.
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