Thermodynamic conditions during the closed cycle (compression, combustion, and expansion) can be directly controlled by adjusting the intake valve opening (IVO) and intake valve closing (IVC) angle, which defines the total intake mass flow rate and the effective compression ratio of the engine .
2) Through using GA, optimal valve settings at low speeds (1000) are the intake valve opening low (13), intake valve closing low (42), exhaust valve opening high (52), and exhaust valve closing high (30).
5 Intake valve opening 21[degrees] Intake valve closing 75[degrees] Exhaust valve opening 68[degrees] Exhaust valve closing 32[degrees]
An explanatory model is that the liquid fuel film, which was most likely created during the closed-valve injection and during the event of intake valve opening, did not evaporate in time.
IVc, which is referred to as roughly the timing of intake valve opening ("iVO"), and CMF = 1 (see Figure 19).