This "systems perspective" is made explicit in the new Commander's Handbook for an Effects-Based Approach to Joint Operations, (5) which both depicts it in a figure (6) and describes the "SoSA-enhanced JIPB" process in an outline that will be familiar to all military intelligence professionals.
While the increased emphasis the effects-based literature places on "nodes" and "links" may remain less comfortable, this merely attaches concrete terms that facilitate a systems view of the battlespace to considerations already inherent in JIPB. For example, a force engaged in counterinsurgency, when conducting JIPB, would likely have taken notice of a fuel storage facility that was believed to be supplying the insurgents and assessed its effects on friendly and adversary courses of action.
The most critical of these fall into three categories: "foundational"; associated with either SoSA-enhanced JIPB or BDA; and "guiding." Taking these actions now will enhance the commander's ability to target the adversary's will to resist, sway unaligned groups toward the friendly desired endstate, and safeguard friendly mission effectiveness.
Foundational actions will help acquire and institutionalize the expertise necessary to analyze and interpret data from the nonmilitary PMESII dimensions, especially cultural and psychological data, for either planning (JIPB) or assessment (BDA).
In the JIPB area, intelligence staff training must routinely incorporate--even if only via reachback--collaboration with interagency partners whose responsibilities lie in the same region, and should prepare J2 (Intelligence) personnel and their counterparts to:
* know the value of cultural and psychological understanding and other nontraditional expertise to a SoSA-enhanced JIPB process--that is, JIPB applied to all PMESII dimensions