He argued that an inexorable circular logic had gripped postwar Japan whereby the business community had concluded that sitting on its stocks or selling them on the black market "would be far easier and decidedly to [its] interests." (54) These critics charged that business, and the zaibatsu in particular, eschewed economic reconstruction in favour of black market speculation while, at the same time, closing factories, laying off workers and crying poverty in the face of Japan's postwar economic kyodatsu jotai. (55) The material shortages that Japanese firms claimed as the reason for stagnating production were in fact the result of the business community's conscious decision not to produce.
For the generation that came of age during this time, the black market, together with the charred rubble of Japan's urban spaces, was the most direct expression of the kyodatsu jotai. This was manifest by the practice of kaidashi mentioned earlier.
(9.) In a 1992 graduate school paper, I developed this theme after coming across a reference to Shinsei tobacco, one of the first early postwar cigarettes, in Laura Hein's Fueling Growth and my initial discovery of the kyodatsu jotai in Arisawa Hiromi's economic histories.