Potential genetic basis with common genetic factors may possibly explain an increased frequency of CD among patients with JSLE. HLA similarities between SLE and CD have been described to support a common genetic factor hypothesis (25, 26).
(20) investigated the gastrointestinal organ-specific autoantibodies in 41 patients with JSLE. EMA antibodies were analyzed in all patients, and only 1 (2.4%) patient had EMA positivity.
We have not detected the association between CD and JSLE.
Mucocutaneous findings, such as malar rash, photosensitivity, oral ulcers, and Raynaud's phenomenon, are more common in ASLE in Latin America, only malar rash is more common in JSLE
and ASLE than in LSLE in Brazil, and only oral ulcers are more common in JSLE
and ASLE in Korea [17, 19, 21].
A total number of 146 patients who had been diagnosed with JSLE, including 36 males (24.7%) and 110 females (75.3%), were enrolled in the present study.
Juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE) is an autoimmune disorder with multisystem involvement, characterized by a broad spectrum of clinical features and a variable course.
In the present study, 43.9% of patients with neuropsychiatric JSLE developed neurological disease at the time of diagnosis, and 31.7% presented symptoms later than 1 year of diagnosis, which is in concordance with previous studies [13,20, 21].
Assessment of JSLE disease activity was performed using the SLE Disease Activity Index 2000 (SLEDAI-2K) (17).
Of the 30 children and adolescents with JSLE, 25 (83.3%) were female, 16 were Caucasian (53.3%), and the current mean age was 13.7 years (7-18 years).
(12), when evaluating 38 individuals with JSLE, observed a high frequency of severe vitamin D deficiency (<10 ng/mL), with a significant difference compared to controls.
The mean age at disease onset, defined as the time of appearance of the first symptoms attributed to JSLE, was 11.9[+ or -]3.4 years (range 2.9-16 years).
The serological findings of patients with JSLE are shown in Table 2.