(5) Leading this effort, the 2017 JTG
also directs that the
Jing, Technical Specification for Construction of Highway Asphalt Pavement (JTG
F40-2004), Beijing, 2004.
 Ministry of Communications of PRC, Specification for Layout of Highway Traffic Signs and Markings: JTG
D82-2009, China Communications Press, 2009.
E20-2011, "Standard test methods of bitumen and bituminus mixture for highway engineering," China Communications Press, Beijing, 2011.
E42-2005, Test Methods of Aggregate for Highway Engineering, Research Institute of Highway of the Ministry of Communications, Ministry of Communications of the PRC, Beijing, China, 2005.
But the current Chinese Highway bridge design common specification (JTG
D60--2015) recommends that the horizontal earth pressure should be regarded as trapezoidal load to calculate the internal force of the culvert components, which is quite different from the actual situation, as shown in Figure 14.
In order to evaluate the reasonableness of the equivalent static force as impact design force of AASHTO-LRFD, Eurocode 1, and JTG
D60-2004, the peak impact force (PIF) from numerical results was converted into the equivalent static force (ESF), according to the equivalent displacement method; that is,
 Ministry of Transport of the People's Republic of China, General Code for Design of Highway Bridges and Culverts (JTG
D60-2004), China Communications Press, Beijing, China, 2004.
Considering the above causes, which would lead to prestress loss of CFL, and based on the code of (JTG
D62-2012) , the prestress loss during tension, ohxlp (MPa), can be calculated as follows:
The LTE parameters used in this study are taken from input documents to JTG
4-5-6-7 working group from WP5D .
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