The highest threshold EC of 3.0 was observed in TBG 20-11, Kenblue, H-86-386 KBG, and TXKY 94-8-8 HBG.
Threshold EC ranged from 1.0 to 5.0 dS [m.sup.-1], with the highest threshold EC of 5.0 observed in Bensuns A-34 KBG, H-86-386 KBG, and TXKY 94-8-8 HBG.
Salinity levels that caused 50% shoot growth reduction values ranged from 6.2 dS [m.sup.-1] in TXKY 96-260-7 HBG to 15.0 in Bensuns A-34 KBG. Although the most and least tolerant entries were the same from E[C.sub.shoot] 25 to E[C.sub.shoot] 50, greater difference in E[C.sub.shoot] 50 was found between KBG and HBG than E[C.sub.shoot] 25, indicating influence of slope of reduction on decreased shoot growth.
Threshold EC ranged from 1.0 to 7.3 dS [m.sup.-1] The highest threshold EC of 7.3 was observed in CS ST 1 KBG. Salinity levels that caused 25% root growth reduction ranged from as low as 2.2 to 2.5 dS [m.sup.-1] in Reveille HBG, TXKY 96-260-6 HBG, TXKY 96-260-7 HBG, Dellwood Fine KBG, and TBG to as high as 13.3 dS [m.sup.-1] in CS ST 1 KBG.
No difference was found among KBG ecotypes for [EC.sub.root] 25.
Although salinity levels that caused E[C.sub.root] 50 ranged from 3.9 dS [m.sup.-1] in TXKY 96-260-7 HBG to 12.1 dS [m.sup.-1] in TBG 10-24, no difference in E[C.sub.root] 50 was found between Poa species, their hybrids, or among KBG ecotypes.
KBGs are the major Japanese business groups that use keiretsu to implement their group decisions.
Different types of KBGs differ in their status structure and degree of internal control, which in turn affects the strength and effectiveness of their keiretsu ties.
Without classification of the horizontal KBGs and the vertical KBGs by degree of internal control, the cooperative activities resulting from different internal control practices cannot be differentiated.
There has been a major debate about the degree of cohesiveness and internal control of the horizontal KBGs. Many researchers, such as JETRO, see all the horizontal KBGs as weak in cohesiveness or internal control.
KBGs can be classified into four types: single-origin horizontal KBGs, multipleorigin horizontal KBGs, single-outlet vertical KBGs (supply KBGs), and multipleoutlet vertical KBGs (distribution KBGs).
Under the classification proposed in this study, the majority of single-origin horizontal KBGs members in each KBG can trace their roots back to the same pre-W.W.II zaibatsu, the Mitsubishi zaibatsu and the Sumitomo zaibatsu.