KBTUKazakh British Technical University
KBTUKilo British Thermal Units
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Measured DOAS Summer Daily Energy for High School Cafeteria Test Test Description Energy Savings Savings Use Compared (%) to Test 1 1 Replaced DX-DOAS 141.3 kWh fixed-flow at 2,500 cfm (1,180 L/s) (482 kBtu) 2 VC DX-DOAS forced to 104.9 kWh 36.4 kWh 25.8% fixed-flow at 2,500 cfm (1,180 L/s) (356 kBtu) (124 kBtu) 3 VC DX-DOAS with C[O.sup.2] DCV 66.5 kWh 74.8 kWh 52.9% (227 kBtu) (255 kBtu) Table 2.
Energy Use Intensity (EUI)--expressed as energy per square foot per year and calculated by dividing the total energy consumed by the building in one year (kBtu) by the total gross floor area of the building--was chosen as the outcome variable for the study and quantified as KBTU/ft2/yr.
The Las Vegas Sands Corporation, which owns the Venetian, the Palazzo and the Sands Expo and Convention Center, set a goal in 2011 to reduce energy use across its properties by 20% in 10 years and has achieved a 17% reduction as of the five-year mark, saving more than 500 million kBTU.
"Our goal was to achieve 115 kBtu per square foot per year," says Alan Eber, manager of engineering and energy at Gundersen Health System.
This allows the lighting load to be converted to the EPA Portfolio "benchmarking" metric of kBTU per sq ft per year, since 1 kWh is equal to 3.41 kBTU.
The current terminals have an operational EUI of 170-180 kBTU per square foot per year, but the new Terminal 1 will have a 50-60 EUI thanks to strategies like displacement ventilation, radiant heating and cooling, dynamic glazing, regenerative elevators, heat recovery readiness and a high-efficiency baggage handling system.
A new approach by some municipalities is to require the benchmarking of the density of the total energy consumption of all energy sources--electric, gas, oil, coal and steam--in thousands of BTUs per sq ft per year (kBTU per sq ft per year) in every facility, and require frequent monitoring.
The lottery office is currently classified as "emerging net zero energy" and has so far achieved a net EUI of -0.1 by generating 22.2 kBTU per square foot per year in renewable energy, just over the building's EUI of 22.1.
Energy consumption is measured in kBTU per sq ft per year, and all buildings of a similar nature are compared to each other.
The design team estimated the annual energy consumption of a highly energy-efficient library around 22.20 kBtu/[ft.sup.2]y (70 kWh/[m.sup.2]y), resulting in an energy consumption of about 501,600 kBtu (147,000 kWh) per year.
In 2015-2016, site electricity use was 129,240 kWh/yr, and site geothermal use was 176,437 kBtu (186.2 GJ).