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After SCI, these neurons produce dramatically less KCC2. As a result, He and colleagues found they can't properly respond to signals from the brain.
(47, 48) It was found that downregulation of the [K.sup.+]-[Cl.sup.-] cotransporter KCC2 and impaired [Cl.sup.-] homeostasis in the dorsa horn lamina I neurons cause MIH.
Hanna et al.,"Bisphenol A delays the perinatal chloride shift in cortical neurons by epigenetic effects on the Kcc2 promoter," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol.
BDNF regulates spontaneous correlated activity at early developmental stages by increasing synaptogenesis and expression of the K+/Cl- co-transporter KCC2. Development 130:1267-1280.
Expression of GABA signaling molecules KCC2, NKCC1, and GAD1 in cortical development and schizophrenia.
This complex brings together three key proteins - KCC2, Neto2 and GluK2 - required for inhibitory and excitatory synaptic communication.
BDNF in turn binds to trkB receptors, causing the downregulation of the potassium chloride exporter KCC2 and the depolarization of dorsal horn neurons .
Gardiner, "Serotonin receptor and KCC2 gene expression in lumbar flexor and extensor motoneurons posttransection with and without passive cycling," Journal of Neurophysiology, vol.
Another factor at play is a protein the brain, KCC2. It has a role in regulating a hormone in the brain that, in turn, lights up the axis to create a stress response.
(76) A more recent study using cortical interneurons showed that the expression of the potassium-chloride co-transporter KCC2 leads to a reduction of the frequency of spontaneous intracellular calcium transients by reducing the membrane potential through GABAA receptor activation.
These levels drop as neurons mature, thanks to a chloride transporter protein called KCC2, which churns chloride ions out of the cells.
For example, glial cells alter the expression of KCC2 and NKCC1, thereby decreasing GABAergic inhibitory tone and increasing glutamate release .
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