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The impaired responsiveness of [K.sub.ATP] channel to the metabolic ligand or KCOs disrupts [K.sub.ATP] channel mediated cellular stress tolerance.
It is possible that STV may slightly compromise mitochondrial functions and disturb overall cellular energies, which increased the susceptibility of mitochondrial to uncoupling (induced by diazoxide) and elevated the sensitivity of sarc[K.sub.ATP] channels towards KCOs (pinacidil) due to a decreased intracellular ATP/ADP ratio.
Abbreviations SUR: Sulfonylurea receptor IPC: Ischemic preconditioning IR: Ischemia-reperfusion KCO: Potassium channel opener 5-HD: 5-Hydroxydecanoate ROS: Reactive oxygen species STV: Isosteviol NAC: N-Acetyl-cysteine APD: Action potential duration DNP: Dinitrophenol RMP: Resting membrane potential PKC: Protein kinase C AMPA: AMP-activated kinase.
Haemodynamic studies have shown that KCOs decrease blood pressure in a dose-dependent manner in both normotensives and hypertensives.
KCOs like minoxidil, diazoxide, nicorandil, pinacidil, cromakalim and levcromakalim act by enhancing the ATPase activity of SUR1 subunit and the resultant channel opening causes hyperpolarization (Fig.
Among the KCOs used therapeutically, minoxidil is the most potent vasodilator but is reserved mainly for severe resistant hypertension.
KCOs are discrete units of information, typically representing a Web page or even a complex multimedia presentation, Behrendt said.
"In some ways, the KCO is comparable to books," Behrendt said.
All the instructors and the interpreters had to go through a one-week certification in which they taught every class that the KCOs would receive.
Two months after the start of the first course, two classes from the CLC had graduated and the KCOs had warrant officers (the Iraqi equivalent to an NCO) filling the ranks of what is now the first Iraqi corrections battalion.
There is still a lot of work to be done before the KCOs will be able to run the TIF independent of a coalition presence.
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- KCNQ2 benign neonatal benign familial neonatal seizures