KFDVKyasanur Forest Disease Virus
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BLAST (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ blast/) and comparative analyses revealed high identity to AHFV and KFDV reference sequences, despite a region with 7 consecutive mismatching nucleotides and a 14-nt deletion (Figure 2, panel A).
Alignment of the 31-bp fragment revealed a single nucleotide change compared with available AHFV sequences and 3 or 4 differences compared with available KFDV sequences (Figure 2, panel B).
During December 31, 2013-April 7, 2014, facility-based surveillance identified 246 suspected cases of KFD; 106 (43.1%) patients were positive for KFDV (78 by RT-PCR, 28 by IgM ELISA); 1 case-patient was also positive for dengue-specific IgM.
Third, the occurrence of cases in areas >5 km away from villages vaccinated in the previous year suggests that targeting vaccination to areas within a 5-km radius of reported KFD activity may not be effective in preventing KFDV transmission outside the vaccinated areas.
A recent outbreak of KFDV was reported during 2011-12, affected 80 villages across the Shimoga district of Karnataka.
Humans can also be infected with KFDV. In humans, the disease causes high fever, frontal headache, and severe myalgia, followed by bleeding from the nasal cavity, throat, gingivae, and, in some cases, gastrointestinal tract (3).
During infection by KFDV, virus titer remains high [less than or equal to] 10 days after onset of symptoms, as reported by Bhat et al.
Vaccines have been developed for YFV, RVFV, Junin virus, KFDV, and hantaviruses (3-7), but only YFV vaccine is widely available.
AHFV was identified as a flavivirus on the basis of immunofluorescence assay performed with the flavivirus-specific monoclonal antibody 4G2 and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of a 220-bp genome fragment that exhibited 89% nucleotide (nt) sequence homology with the Kyasanur Forest disease virus (KFDV) NS5 gene.