1), and encompassed the southern flanks of the central Brooks Range, including the southeastern portion of GAAR, all of KNWR, and other state, federal, private, and native lands.
1) were designated as 'northern moose' and those in and around KNWR as 'southern moose'.
GPS and VHF locations were also used to determine if individual moose utilized conservation units (GAAR, KNWR), the DHCMA exclusively, or multiple units.
The mean annual home range was smallest for cows found primarily within the KNWR (n = 5; 199.6 [+ or -] 63.0 [km.sup.2]), increased in size in the DHCMA (n = 11; 227.9 [+ or -] 88.5 [km.sup.2]), and was largest for cows (n = 3; 279.1 [+ or -] 77.4 [km.sup.2]) in the GAAR.
VHF and GPS data (n = 116 moose) were combined to examine movements in and around GAAR, KNWR, and the DHCMA.
In this study, we examined fine-scale movement data collected as part of a larger project that assessed moose movements between GAAR and KNWR, and the DHCMA.
The study was in the upper Koyukuk River drainage that encompasses the southern slopes of the central Brooks Range, including the southeastern portion of GAAR, all of KNWR, and other state, federal (including portions of the DHCMA), and native lands (Fig.
Nonetheless, in GAAR where hunting and trapping regulations are restrictive, cows moved less than cows in KNWR where limited, but more hunting and trapping occurs--weakening the predator abundance explanation.
This abrupt and marked movement likely related to the concern of public hunting advisory groups that moose might be migrating out of the conservation units (GAAR and KNWR) into areas where hunting regulations were more liberal.