Indonesia's Ministry of Environment and Forestry manages the KPH program and has prioritized it in their medium-term development plan, due to its potential to strengthen forest management, improve use of natural resources, and help reduce poverty among the 32 million people living in and around forest lands.
Unclear and conflicting regulations, limited capacity at multiple levels, inadequate investment financing and lack of consistent information have impeded effective implementation of the KPH program.
The project aims to help operationalize the KPH program by strengthening the capacity of local governments, community groups, and license holders to manage forests, and foster partnerships among them.
"Effective operationalization of the KPH program requires strong systems for sharing, among other things, information on land use and land cover, existing licenses and permits, approaches for forest governance and management.
In terms of their programs, KPHs and CFs are not the same.
Various statements relevant to our research questions have been extracted to explain formal tasks and responsibilities related to KPHs and CFs (see the list of empirical materials in the References section).
From 2008 to 2014, the authors were involved in public consultations and establishing experiments for selected KPHs and CFs (including awareness campaigns, plan designs, plan implementation, and plan assessments).
Figure 2 shows the locations of the various KPHs and CFs discussed as case studies (Gomm et al.