During both crisis periods, the ADF and the KPSS
offer evidence that the markets were, in fact, stationary--the only exception being the case of South Korea during the AFC as shown by the KPSS
results at 10 per cent level of significance (Table 5).
has capabilities including access, video, intrusion and fire solutions supported by on-going maintenance, inspections and monitoring services.
In USA (1929-2008), unit root is present under Phillips-Perron tests (with or without trend) and KPSS
test with constant and trend.
As this test is a panel test based on Hadri's univariate KPSS
test, model(7) is estimated using the Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) method.
Com base nos resultados dos testes ADF e KPSS
, conclui-se que as series lcom e lind sao estacionarias em primeira diferenca I(0) e integradas em nivel I(1).
Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF), (HAC corrected) Phillips-Perron (PP), (confirmatory) Kwiatkowski-Phillips-Schmidt-Shin (KPSS
), and (single break) Zivot-Andrews (ZA) tests were used to determine the order of integration of each time series.
investigation was opened in 2010 after more than 3,227 people answered most or all of the questions on the exam correctly, leading to claims that some of the candidates had either cheated during the exam or obtained the questions beforehand.
Shehbaz Sharif said that he is pleased to inaugurate a quality school in rural area of Sehgalabad and newly constructed quality classrooms of KPSS
1996; Ng and Perron 2001) and their counterpart KPSS
(Kwiatkowski, Phillips, Schmidt and Shin 1992) test for no unit root (stationarity) are implemented instead of the standard ADF and PP tests for their high sensitivity to the selection of lag-lengths.
Two unit root tests are used in this paper, the augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) test and the Kwiatkowski-Phillips-Schmidt-Shin (KPSS