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According to the KSTE, such protected but undercommercialized or uncommercialized knowledge can embed entrepreneurial opportunities.
According to the KSTE, it is important to distinguish knowledge spillovers from knowledge transfer.
Although previous KSTE studies have evidenced the effects of knowledge spillovers at the regional or national level, knowledge spillovers in the alliance context have not been adequately investigated.
These considerations seem to confirm that the two premises of the KSTE hold true in the alliance context, which allows us to pursue a framework for the KSTE in alliances.
According to the KSTE, such underexploited or unexploited knowledge gives rise to entrepreneurial opportunities through knowledge spillovers.
According to the KSTE, when there are knowledge spillovers and spill-ins, the community experiences a process of "creative construction" (Agarwal et al., 2007, 2010; Kotha, 2010).
With respect to the KSTE in alliances, an EO reflects alliance partners' entrepreneurial posture in the pursuit and exploitation of knowledge spillovers.
In prior KSTE studies, knowledge spillovers are said to happen only when employees in a knowledge-creating firm can penetrate the firm's knowledge filters, for example by leaving the firm (Acs, Braunerhjelm, et al., 2009; Audretsch & Aldridge, 2009).
Based on their work and the KSTE, this research adapted these questions to our context to measure knowledge spillovers in an alliance and emphasize the nature of undercompensation or noncompensation of knowledge flows.
The primary theoretical contribution of this study is the development of the KSTE in alliances.
First, regarding the KSTE, this research confirmed and extended the focal relationship to the alliance context.
Third, we found a process of creative construction as envisioned by the KSTE. Creative construction occurs when knowledge spillovers and knowledge spill-ins occur simultaneously in a community, and as a result all community members become better off (Agarwal et al., 2007, 2010).
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