As it is shown in Figure 5, blockade of iNOS by L-NMMA
almost completely diminished the renoprotective effects of MSC-CM as determined by increased serum levels of BUN and creatinine (p < 0.05, Figure 5(a)) and histological analysis (Figures 5(b) and 5(c)).
The effects of Keishibukuryogan administration were investigated using the following three groups: the control group given DAF-2DA only, the Keishibukuryogan group given DAF-2DA and Keishibukuryogan, and the L-NMMA
group given DAF-2DA and L-NMMA
3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), 4-amino-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine (PP2), [N.sup.G]-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA
), and LPS (E.
1400 W, L-NIL, L-NMMA
, and S-NO-Cap were purchased from Calbiochem-Novabiochem Corporation (La Jolla, CA, USA).
For example, individual variability in the FMD response following L-NMMA
and/or PN blockade by ketorolac was observed, and only half of the young subjects exhibited an observable (and fairly modest) effect of L-NMMA
on RA FMD.
Stimulation with IFN-[gamma], LPS alone or in combination, or CpG alone in the presence of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor (L-NMMA
) of either cell line prevented nitrite production (concentrations consistently below 10 [micro]M, data not shown).
To determine the contribution of NO to the antiproliferative effect of proinflammatory cytokines on pancreatic [beta] cells, pancreatic islets were cultured over a 48 h period and treated with pro inflammatory cytokines, alone or in the presence of L-NMMA
(an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase).
After equilibration for 90 min, purified anthocyanins, L-NMMA
, or a guanylate cyclase (GC) inhibitor, 1H-[1, 2, 4]oxadiazolo-[4,3-a] quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ), were added to the bath and their effects on vasorelaxation were observed.
Inhibitors of NO synthesis MK-801, AP5 Gold fish Learning of avoidance task MK-801 Mice Learning of avoidance task L-NAME Rats Learning and memory of maze performance Rabbit Eye-blink conditioning Chicks Learning of avoidance task Rats Learning and memory of avoidance task Rats Learning of avoidance task Octopus vulgaris Learning of avoidance task Aplysia Learning of avoidance task Honey bee Learning of olfactory discrimination L-NA Rats Learning and memory of avoidance task Rats Learning and memory of maze performance Rats Learning and memory of maze performance L-NMMA
Rats Memory of avoidance task 7-NI Rats Learning and memory of avoidance task Rats Learning and memory of maze performance Chicks Learning of avoidance task 4.
A comparison is made between arteriolar responses under the normal superfusate, during L-NMMA
superfusion, and in rats exposed to 0.25 mg ROFA.
Drugs were obtained from Sigma (Poole, Dorset, UK) except SNAP, SNOG, and L-NMMA
, which were gifts from the Wellcome Research Laboratories, and ODQ, which was purchased from Tocris Cookson (Bristol, UK).
It is shown that, after administration of L-NMMA
, which is a NOS inhibitor, both the endothelium-dependent vasodilatation and insulin mediated glucose uptake are impaired (16).