4] Nonstandard abbreviations: PI3K, phosphoinositide 3-kinase; MSI, microsatellite instability; TCGA, The Cancer Genome Atlas; L1CAM
, L1 cell adhesion molecule; EpCAM, epithelial cell adhesion molecule; IMP3, insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 3; RTK, receptor tyrosine kinase.
Spectrum and detection rate of L1CAM
mutations in isolated and familial cases with clinically suspected L1-disease.
Promising agents that have been shown to reduce fetal cell toxicity include anti-inflammatory agents such as prostaglandin inhibitors, growth factors, antioxidants, the nutrient choline, and agents that interfere with alcohol-related disruption of the L1CAM
system (Yeaney et al.
In the comparative study with normal cells quoted above, (74) SEMA3C, ITGB4, CDH3, and COL6A1 were highly expressed in the epithelioid MPM subtype; L1CAM
, K14, and INP10 were overexpressed in the mixed MPM subtype; and MMP9 and PLXN3 were overexpressed in the sarcomatoid MPM subtype.
The potential development of such agents recently has been enhanced by the identification of the alcohol-binding site on the L1CAM
(Arevalo et al.
Recent data show that a low dose of 1-octanol interacts with the L1CAM
to block an alcohol-induced mechanism of abnormal physical development in a mouse embryo model (Wilkemeyer et al.
67) The expression of L1CAM
, COX2, and EGFR proteins in undifferentiated carcinomas have been noted as possible future targets of inhibitor-based treatments.