Sea hare LAAO activity produces a mixture of ingredients that changes quickly over time.
Apoptosis-inducing protein, an LAAO in fish, fights infections by larval nematodes (Jung et al.
To date, no LAAO has been reported in the skin or body wall of Aplysia spp.
As is evident from the LAAO pathway, the chemistry of the reaction of a single enzyme with a single substrate can be complex and can produce a diverse array of chemicals, each of which can act in different ways on different species of would-be predators.
Abbreviations: LAAO, L-amino acid oxidase; MAA, mycosporine-like amino acid.
LAAOs are found widely in nature, and because their reaction products often damage tissues or cells, they often have offensive or defensive functions, as described later in this section.
These LAAOs have different substrate specificities.
This is the first demonstration of the antipredatory effects of sea hare LAAOs and shows that they can affect the behavior of potential predators through the attackers' chemosensory systems.
Which appeared first--those in the ink gland or those in the albumen gland--is not known, but I speculate that LAAOs first appeared in the albumen glands.