We built 3 models: 1) the tree-hole model, in which the tree-hole mosquito is the only LACV vector; 2) the tiger model, in which the tiger mosquito is the only LACV vector; and 3) the tree-hole/tiger model, in which mosquitoes of both species simultaneously serve as LACV vectors.
To determine whether sustained LACV transmission is predicted, we considered the basic reproduction number, [R.
The 85 LACV disease cases were reported from 59 counties in 12 states; 77 (91%) were neuroinvasive (Table 1).
In addition to the LACV and JCV cases, five cases of California serogroup virus disease were reported for which the specific infecting virus was unknown.
strains are known to cause different symptoms (34), but neither INKV nor CHATV have been isolated from a human sample.
The 78 LACV
disease cases were reported from 50 counties in 11 states; 71 (91%) were neuroinvasive (Table 1).
However, given the lack of widespread testing availability and the few reported cases, the actual clinical spectrum of JCV infection, unlike that of LACV
, remains unclear.
The 130 LACV
disease cases were reported from 81 counties in 14 states (Figure); 116 (89%) were considered neuroinvasive (Table 1).
In recent years, LACV
reportedly has increased above endemic levels in regions of the southeastern United States, including areas of eastern Tennessee (6).
Furthermore, while seasonal distribution of LACV
infections in humans generally occurs in August, JCV infections can occur earlier, in May and June, and continue through the end of summer, likely because the seasonal distribution of mosquito vectors differs for each virus (8).
is the most prevalent member of California serogroup viruses, * a presumptive diagnosis of LACV
neuroinvasive disease was made.
Because guidelines for evaluating pregnant women infected with LACV
do not exist, interim guidelines for West Nile virus were used to direct maternal and infant follow-up (4).